Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12®
When this strain was originally isolated, it was thought to be a member of the species Bifidobacterium bifidum. More modern classification techniques reclassified it as Bifidobacterium animalis and then finally to Bifidobacterium lactis. In fact, it was decided that this strain did not fulfil the criteria for a species but rather a subspecies; strictly speaking making it Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; yet which is now more commonly referred to as Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12®.
The weight of research which supports the use of this strain suggests that it may have numerous potential benefits for health, and it is of interest to note that one of the largest clinical trials ever conducted on a probiotic strain was performed using Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12®. Also of interest is the fact that several of the trials mentioned here were performed using this strain in combination with Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05.
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® and Constipation and Healthy Bowel Function
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® is a well-established, highly researched strain of probiotic, believed to be one of the most clinically researched strains available commercially. This strain is one of the most respected probiotics featured in this database and, as previously mentioned, is probably best known for being used in one of the largest ever clinical trials conducted on a probiotic strain. This particular trial assessed the effect of BB-12® on improving bowel regularity in constipated participants, where it was found to significantly alleviate constipation.
The B. lactis BB-12® strain was put to the test in research that used over 1,200 volunteering participants from all over Europe, including France, the UK and Germany. This fact in itself is interesting, as it meant that the trial encompassed a variety of different diets and lifestyles. The subjects were all healthy and had never been diagnosed with any acute digestive function; however, they had all reported symptoms of low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort.
The volunteers were split into 3 groups: the first group received a 1 billion dose of B. lactis BB-12® once daily, the second group received 10 billion dose of B. lactis BB-12® once daily, and the third group received a placebo. The groups were monitored over a period of 4 weeks. Results showed that the 1 billion B. lactis BB-12® group revealed the most statistically impressive result, improving defecation frequency from 3 days a week to 4.5 days a week (Eskesen et al. 2015).
The aim of another clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness of B. lactis BB-12® to three other strains of friendly bacteria, for women suffering with constipation, and interestingly also in women not suffering with constipation, to ensure B. lactis BB-12® did not result in diarrhoea in those who are not constipated. 35 women aged between 20-39 years old were divided into two groups: those who were constipated and those who were non-constipated. Half of the women in each group were given B. lactis BB-12® plus the other three probiotic strains, and the other half were given just the three probiotic strains without the B. lactis BB-12®. In those who were given the three strains plus the B. lactis BB-12®, for those who had constipation, B. lactis BB-12® was able to harmonise regularity of bowel movements and significantly increase stool frequency, and in the non-constipated women it did not show an increase in bowel regularity (Nishida et al, 2004). This trial demonstrates that B. lactis BB-12® is superior in helping with constipation compared to the other three strains used in this study, and that it should not cause diarrhoea, unlike many common laxatives. (Nishida et al, 2004)
A triple-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 constipated pregnant women who were randomly put into two groups. One group received 300g of yoghurt with 48 billion units of BB-12 and LA-05 probiotic strains added, the other group received a placebo yoghurt. The participants were monitored for symptoms of constipation. The frequency of defecation was increased from 2.1 (0.8) at the start of the study to 8.3 (4.4) in the probiotic yogurt group vs. 2.3 (0.7) at to 8.1 (4.3) in the placebo yogurt group at the end of 4th week. The researchers concluded that a probiotic yogurt containing these two strains could can therefore play a role in improving the symptoms of constipation in pregnancy (Mirghafourvand M et al, 2016)
Kabeerdoss et al (2011), Malpeli et al (2012), Matsumoto et al (2001), Murakami et al (2006), Murakami et al (2006), Pitkala, et al (2007), Uchida et al (2005).
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® and Immunity
It’s believed that probiotic bacteria in the gut may interact with the immune system in several different ways: they may increase local and systemic antibody production; increase immune cell activity, and modulate signals in epithelial and immune cells. Research into the effect of B. lactis BB-12® on immune function has suggested that it may be able to help reduce respiratory infections.
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted using 211 participants who consumed either a B. lactis BB-12® (capsule), a dairy drink containing L. casei 431®, or a matching placebo once daily for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks, a seasonal influenza vaccination was given. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks in order to analyse antibodies, cytokines and innate immune parameters. Changes in the vaccine-specific plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly greater in both probiotic groups versus the placebo group .This suggests that supplementation with B. lactis BB-12® or L. casei 431® may be an effective means to improve immune function - see right (Rizzardini, 2012).
Other relevant studies:
Holsher et al (2012), Hoppu et al (2012), Kabeerdoss (2011), Latvala (2008), Lópeza et al (2010), Merenstein et al (2010), Rautava et al (2009), Schiffrin et al (1997), Smith T. et al (2012), Taipale et al (2011), Valsecchi et al (2014).
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® in Pregnancy
B. lactis BB-12® has also been tested in pregnant women to assess its potential to prevent or reduce atopic sensitisation in their offspring.
In a randomized, double-blind trial a total of 415 pregnant women were first given either probiotic milk or placebo from 36 weeks of pregnancy to 3 months postnatally during breastfeeding. The probiotic milk contained Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12®. The results showed a measurable reduction in the cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis in their children (Dotterud et al, 2010).
B. lactis BB-12® was again trialled in pregnant women in another study by Laitinen et al (2009) which focused on the potential of dietary changes alongside probiotics to positively affect the body’s management of blood sugar. Throughout the study period, dietary and probiotics interventions yielded consistently improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in 256 healthy, pregnant women. These results provided clinical evidence of a significant role for the gut microbiota in the healthy management of blood sugar both during and after pregnancy.
Asemi et al (2013), Mirghafourvand & Mojgan et al (2016)
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® and Diarrhoea in Infants & Children
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study looked at the efficacy of a milk formula supplemented with B. lactis BB-12® for the prevention of diarrhoea in infants. This study, which involved 90 infants younger than eight months suggested that B. lactis BB-12® may statistically lower the chances of infants developing diarrhoea (Chouraqui et al 2004).
Other relevant studies:
Nopchinda S et al (2002), Saavedra et al (1994).
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® and Helicobacter Pylori
In one study, 160 patients were either given triple therapy to eradicate Helicobacter pylori or triple therapy with a combined probiotic including B. lactis BB-12®. The study concluded that supplementing with a probiotic yogurt can improve the intention-to-treat eradication rates of H. pylori, and can restore the depletion of Bifidobacteria in stool samples after triple therapy (de Vrese et al, 2011).
Sheu et al (2006)
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® and Antibiotic Associated Diarrhoea
A study to assess the effects of probiotics on antibiotic associated diarrhoea was conducted using 88 patients who were infected with H. pylori but who were otherwise healthy. The subjects were all given antibiotic therapy for eradication of the H. pylori, but a group of these were also given a milk containing B. lactis BB-12® and L. acidophilus LA-05. It was found that the probiotic group had much decreased intestinal symptoms and the duration of their antibiotic associated diarrhoea was reduced (Sheu et al, 2002).
These results were supported by a further study conducted by Bhalla (2011) which used a probiotic formula containing the strains B. lactis BB-12® and L. acidophilus LA-05. The findings indicated that these strains of probiotic could significantly reduce the severity of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.
Further related studies:
Fox et al (2015), Wenus et al (2008).
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® and Atopic Eczema in Infants
In one study, 27 exclusively breast-fed infants with atopic eczema were split into three groups. One group was weaned to a probiotic-supplemented whey formula containing B. lactis BB-12®; the second group was weaned to the same formula but containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), and the third group was a control group weaned to the same formula without probiotics. The result was a significant improvement in skin condition in those children who had been given the probiotic as opposed to those who had not (Solauri et al, 2000).
Further related study: Dotterud et al (2010)
Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12® and Metabolism of Glucose and Fats
Oxidative stress is known to be a factor in the pathophysiology of diabetes, and research has indicated that probiotics may have a role in reducing oxidative stress. This was demonstrated by Ejtahed et al (2012) in a trial using 64 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. For six weeks, one group received probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and a control group received conventional yogurt. The probiotic group showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose, highlighting a role for probiotics in the management of diabetes.
Impaired lipid metabolism in diabetics has been the focus of further studies. Another trial by Ejtahed et al (2011) monitored 60 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes and elevated cholesterol (LDL-C) for six weeks. The control group was given 300 g of conventional yogurt daily, and an intervention group was given 300 g of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12®. The probiotic group showed a 4.54% decrease in total cholesterol and a 7.45% decrease in LDL-C compared with control, suggesting that probiotics may improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in type 2 diabetics.
Asemi et al (2013), Laitinen et al (2009), Mohamadshahi et al, (2014).
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